Extension Name of Some Files

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Windows Operating System

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Data Communication

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Some Abbreviations In Computer

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

What Is The Internet

A Website Window To Focus Upon Complete Computer Education

Aug 3, 2013


HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. HTML used by web browsers in determining how to display a web page. it is the underlying foundation of website design. it is a combination of plain text and tags. Tags tell the browser how to display contents of the page. you use tags every time you want to format a text, insert image or table. HTML documents are also called web pages.


Role of each tag in a document:
1. <html></html> all HTML documents begin and end with these tags. they tell browser that it is an HTML document.

2. <head></head> head tags encapsulate meta information, such as the document's title, keywords and description information that will be used by search engines.

3. <title></title> title tags define the title of the document, that will be displayed in title bar of the browser.

4. <body></body> this is body section of document and document's viewable contents will be inserted here.

5. the text between <h1> and </h1> is displayed as a heading.

6. the text between <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph.

HTML can be edited by using a professional HTML editor like:
1. Adobe Dreamweaver.
2. Kompozer Tutorial.
3. Microsoft Expression Web.
4. CoffeeCup HTML Editor. 

1.The structure of an HTML document:

               <title>Example Page</title>
        <h1>Hello India</h1>

Output would be:


2.Change Background Color:

<title>my first web page</title>
<body bgcolor="#0099ff">

my name is Manik Sarkar


  Output would be:


3.Create Table:

<table border=1 bgcolor=#ccffoo>

Output would be:


4.Create Link:

The HTML code for a link looks like this
<a href="url">Link Text</a>


<a href="http://www.computinga2z.blogspot.com/">Computer Learn</a>

Which will display like this:   Computer Learn

5.Add Images:

The HTML code for  images look like this
<img src="url" alt="some text">


<img src="http://hdnaturepictures.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Green-Mountain-Wallpaper.jpg" alt="mountain">

Jul 30, 2013


History of 'C' Programming Language:
C programming is a popular computer programming language which is widely used for system and application software. C programming language is a structure oriented programming language. C was developed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. C programming features were derived from an earlier language called "B"(BCPL language). C language was invented for implementing UNIX operating system. In the year 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan published the first edition "The C programming language" and commonly known as K&R C. In 1983, the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI Standard, or ANSI-C was completed late 1988. Today's most popular Linux OS and RBDMS MySQL have been written in C.

The 'C' Compiler:
the source code written in the source file is the human-readable source for your program. it needs to be compiled, to run into machine language so that your CPU can actually execute the program as per instructions were given. this C programming language compiler will be used to compile your source code into the final executable program. there are many compilers available on the internet and sold commercially in stores or online.

Top 10 C/C++ Compilers and IDEs:

Features of 'C' Language:
1. Powerful.
2. Low-level features.
3. High-level features.
4. Portability.
5. Bit manipulation.
6. Modular programming.
7. Reliability.
8. Flexibility.
9. Interactivity.
10. Efficiency and effectiveness.

                                             C Programming

Some Example:


                         #include <stdio.h>
                     int main ( )
                     /*my first program in C */
                     printf ("Hello, India!  \n");

                       return 0;

Output would be-       "Hello India"

A   C program basically consists of the five parts ...
1.Preprocessor Commands:  The first line of the program  #include <stdio.h> is a preprocessor command which tells a C compiler to include stdio.h file before going to actual compilation.

2.Functions:  The next line int main ( ) is the main function where program execution begins.

3. Variables:  The next line /*........*/ will be ignored by the compiler and it has been put to add additional comments in the program. So such lines are called comments in the program.

4. Statements and Expressions:  The next line printf(.......) is another function available in C which causes the message "Hello, India!" to be displayed on the screen.

5. Comments:  You will be able to see "Hello India" printed on the screen.

Jul 26, 2013


Java is an object-oriented programming language, which can be used to do any of the thousands of things that a computer software can do. With the features it offers, Java has become the language of choice for internet and intranet applications. Java plays an important role in the proper functioning of many software-based devices attached to a network. The kind of functionality the java offers has contributed a lot towards the popularity of Java.

                   Java is both, a programming language and a platform. Like any other programming language, you can use java to write and create various types of computer applications. Java is also a platform for application development. The word 'platform' generally is used to refer to some combination of hardware and system software.

JAVA Programs    

History of Java:
In the following lines, the history of java can be found out in the java timeline.

1991: James Gosling develops Oak(later renamed java) language for programming intelligent consumer electronic devices.

1993: World Wide Web explodes.

1995: Java formally announced. Incorporated into Netscape web browser.

1996: Java development kit (JDK) 1.0 ships. java beans component architecture Corel Office for java preview. Sun announces java station network computer. Sun announces 100% pure java initiative.

1997: JDK 1.1 launched. Java servlet API released.

1998: JDK 1.2 launched. Sun introduces community source 'open' licensing. Sun produces a JDK 1.2 for Linux.

1999-2001: JDK 1.3 released. JDK's also produced by IBM on multiple platforms. Java-based application servers (BEA, IBM Websphere etc.) become popular. J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition), J2SE(Java 2 Standard Edition), J2ME(Java 2 Micro Edition) appear.

2002: Java support for web services officially released via the java web services developer pack.

Characteristics of Java:
1.Write once run anywhere(WORA):  The java programs need to be written just once, which can be run on different platforms without making changes in the java program.

2.Lightweight code:  With Java, big and useful applications can also be created with very light code. No huge coding is required.

3.Security:  Java offers many security features to make its programs safe and secure.

4.Built-in graphics:  Java offers many built-in graphics features and routines which can be used to make java application more visual.

5.Object-oriented language:  Java is an object-oriented language, thereby, very near to the real world.

6.Supports multimedia:  Java is ideally suited for integration of video, audio, graphics, and animation in the internet environment.

7.Platform independent:  Java is essentially platform independent. Change of platform does not affect the original java program or application.

8.Open product:  Java is an open product, freely available to all. However, there exist some special time-saving java development kits, which can be availed by paying small amounts.

Types of Java:
There are two types of Java programs.
1.Internet Applets:  Internet applets are small programs that are embedded in web pages and are run on the viewer's machine in a secured manner by java capable browsers. Applets are designed to be delivered to internet web browsers and that is why an applet has a built-in graphical window. But Java applets have some security restrictions.

2.Stand Alone Applications:  These type of java program is much more interesting. It is generally a software application that does not require low-level operating system or hardware access. This includes most of the usual desktop applications such as word processors or spreadsheets. Stand-alone Java applications could be distributed on standard ISO 9660 format CD-ROMs and installed on any Java-capable machine. Every stand-alone application of java begins executing with the main method. 

Some Simple Java Programs:
Let us now have a look at an example java program. Following lines show a simple and short example java program - Hello World.


                          /*program Hello World*/
                             class Hello World
                             public void say Hello( )
                                     system.out. printIn("Hello World!!");
                           }         //class definition ends here

          Let us now examine parts of this sample program.

class Hello World
                       The line class Hello World means that a class is being defined. After the class name, the data members and member functions of the class are defined within curly braces{}.

Method say Hello
                     The Hello World class contains one method - the Say Hello method. This is a member function of class Hello World.

System.out.printIn("Hello World!!")
                       This statement prints Hello World!! on the standard output device which is generally your monitor.

Comments /* .....*/ and // ....
                        The text enclosed within /*...... */, called comments, is purely for enhancing readability. The comments are ignored by the compiler and not executed at all even if you write a valid Java statement within /*......*/. within /*........*/, multi-line comments can be inserted but with // .... only single line comment can be inserted.


/* java short example 
    this java example shows how to declare and use java primitive short variable
inside a java class.

       public class JavaShortExample {
              public static void main(String[]args) {
               *short is 16 bit signed type ranges from - 32,768 to 32,767.
               *Declare short variable as below
               *short <variable name> = <default value>;
               *here assigning default value is optional.

                 short s1 = 45;
                 short s2 = 35;

            system.out.printIn("value of short variable b1 is :"+s1);
            system.out.printIn("value of short variable b1 is :"+s2);


             output would be.... 
               value of short variable b1 is :45
               value of short variable b2 is :35

Jun 17, 2013


A web page is a document, usually written in Hypertext Markup Language(HTML), which can be accessed on the internet. Web pages may contain text, pictures, movies, sounds, graphics, information and hyperlinks to other web pages and files.

                   The Web page is the basic unit of information on the world wide web. It contains text and graphics and other media. Like a book or magazine's page, a web page can be of any length but results are obtained for shorter page length.

                                               A Web Page

                     A document created with HTML as a part of a group of hypertext documents or resources available on the world wide web collectively is known as a website. One can read HTML documents from the internet or from the local hard disk drive with the help of a software called a web browser. Web browsers read HTML documents and display them as formatted presentations, with any associated graphics, sound, and video on a computer screen. Web pages can contain hypertext links to other places within the same document, to other documents at the same website or to documents at other websites. These also can contain fill-in forms, photos, large clickable images, sounds, and videos for downloading.

                       This web page is a single document on the world wide web and it is specified by a unique address or URL and it may contain text, hyperlinks, and graphics.

                       The web uses the metaphor 'pages', for the organization of information. One page is actually a text file marked up in HTML. It appears in the web browser as a page containing images, text, hypertext and graphical links to other points on the same page, other pages, large images, sound or movies. Technically speaking, one page is one computer file that has been marked up with HTML codes. To a person using the web, a page is that unit that can be scrolled through using web browser's scrolling tools. A web page has a top and a bottom, a beginning, and an end.

                       A Web page is simply a collection of electronic information on the web, formatted in HTML and addressed by a single URL.

                       The semantic web provides a common framework. It allows data to be shared and reused by application, enterprise and community boundaries. It is based on the resource description framework, which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URLs for naming.

                      The semantic web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in co-operation.

HTML(Hypertext Markup Language):
Hypertext markup language(HTML) is suitable for converting ordinary text into hypertext. It is a set of special codes included to control the layout and appearance of the text. Technically, HTML is not a programming language. It combines instructions with data to form a display program, called browser. HTML has the following features ............

1. HTML is the character based method for describing and expressing the content. the content is pictures, text, sound and video clips.
2. It delivers the contents to multiple platforms.
3. It links document components or documents together to compose compound documents.
4. HTML is a type of code. It embeds simple codes within standard ASCII text documents to provide an integrated, two-dimensional display of text and graphics.
5. Any document created with any word processor and stored in ASCII format can become a web page with the addition of a few HTML codes.

                             Tim Berners Lee developed HTML in early 1990 at CERN(Conseil European De La Recherche Nucleaire), the European  Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. HTML is a public domain and not owned by anybody. The WBC(world wide web consortium www.w3.org) is the body, which controls the HTML standards. To develop web pages, we always remember the following three C's of web page design.....

1. Quality content.
2. Artistic composition.
3. Reader convenience.

                           All web pages should be written, viewed and tested before installing the same on a public web server. Any web page on a web server requires ongoing maintenance. Timely information on developed pages should continue to be updated. External hyperlinks should be periodically tested to ensure that these are not obsolete.

                           Web page design is not like desktop publishing where the author has absolute control over the final presentation of the text. Web page display is always dependent on input from both the web page author and the web page reader. Control on the part of the reader is essential because any given browser may be operating on any number of hardware platforms. Large complicated screen displays may be unreadable on the small screen of a laptop computer. For example, a paragraph indentation of 10 characters looks fine in a window that displays 100 characters per line, but it is not so fine in a window that displays only 30 characters per line. Also, browsers wrap text from one line to the next, unless instructed otherwise. Since users can re-size their browser's display window, one user may see the text wrapped after 80 characters, while another sees it wrapped after 60. Users have no control over these things and they may only hope to create a web page that will be easy to read for a majority of users. This makes text formatting in HTML inherently more limited than text formatting with a word processor. It is difficult to know the dimensions of the window prior to displaying it on screen. These uncontrollable factors make to format a challenge to format HTML text. There is also web page construction kits and these can be used to build prefabricated web pages from HTML template. Each template is designed for a particular genre(Example- a personal homepage or a small business advertisement). For this, it is required to select a template and add the content.

                           Special HTML editors, interactive assistants, and construction bits are all instructional for beginners. The most advanced HTML features are associated with graphics and special effects.

A web page is just a text file. However, it is a text file that contains HTML tags in addition to the text that appears when the page is viewed with a web browser. We can start a web page by writing all of the visible text first and then inserting the HTML tags later. We can edit the web page using any text editor or word processor as long as the file is saved as plain ASCII text. A well-designed web page normally consists of three parts..........
1. Head
2. Body
2. Graphics

                         The head is reserved for the title of the document as well as some optional data. Every web page should have a title which will be displayed in the title bar of a web browser. The title is also important to some search engines which may weigh keywords found in a title more heavily than other keywords. A web page is built with HTML elements, and each element is associated with an HTML tag or pair of tags. For example, the title of a web page is an HTML element, and it is created with a pair of tags that mark the beginning of the title and the end of the title -<title>and</title>:

HTML is a subset of SGML. SGML organized the 1960s at IBM to overcome the problems in moving the documents across the multiple hardware platforms and operating systems. IBM's efforts were called GML(general markup language). Later in 1980, SGML came into existence.




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